According to Ascend fellow Dr. Sarah Watamura, and the research of some of her colleagues at Stress Early Experience & Development Research Center, it’s not just your life that is permanently changed by parenthood, but also your brain. We partnered with her on this easy-to-read report on it. Meanwhile, check out some of the surprises they’ve uncovered:

The good news is that Watamura and her colleagues emphasize that though some of these fundamental brain changes might sound daunting, we are profoundly resilient creatures as parents. Inequity isn’t inevitable. There are plenty of things one can do to support holistic wellness, despite the challenges of raising kids in a country that doesn’t provide necessary supports and, let’s be honest, sleep deprivation. Hang in there!